Climate change adaptation can help to promote Sub-Saharan African Livelihoods.

Investing in ways to adapt to climate change will promote the livelihood of 65 per cent of Africans, the United Nations environmental agency reported, warning also that failing to address the phenomenon could reverse decades of development progress on the continent.

Africa’s population is set to double to 2 billion by 2050, the majority of whom will continue to depend on agriculture to make a living, according to the UN Environment Programme (UNEP).

“With 94 per cent of agriculture dependent on rainfall, the future impacts of climate change – including increased droughts, flooding, and seal-level rise – may reduce crop yields in some parts of Africa by 15 – 20 per cent,” UN Under-Secretary-General and UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner said.

“Such a scenario, if unaddressed, could have grave implications for Africa’s most vulnerable states,” he added.

In a new graphical report, Keeping Track of Adaptation Actions in Africa (KTAA) – Targeted Fiscal Stimulus Actions Making a Difference, UNEP details the implications of climate change, and provides examples of adaptation projects that range from forest ecosystem management to aquatics and agriculture.

The report describes sustainable examples of how countries in sub-Saharan Africa enhanced environmental and ecosystem resilience through the use of native plants and natural infrastructure, land plans and rainwater harvesting, among other examples.

The projects are integrated into national development policies which can strengthen and enhance the resilience communities against the impacts of climate change, while also contributing to the realization of the anti-poverty targets known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), according to the report authors.

“By integrating climate change adaptation strategies in national development policies Governments can provide transitional pathways to green growth and protect and improve the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of Africans,” Mr. Steiner noted.
The projects also highlight the urgency to act now in adapting to challenges, especially in developing countries where capabilities to respond to the magnitude of the problem are limited.

This year’s Africa Environment Day, marked annually on 3 March, focused on combating desertification on the continent and enhancing its agriculture and food security. The continent has lost 65 per cent of its agricultural land since 1950 due to land degradation, according to figures cited by UNEP. Up to 12 per cent of its agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) is lost due to deteriorating conditions and 135 million people are at risk of having to move from their land by 2020 due to desertification.

Source; UN Report, August 2014.

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The longer World waits to address climate change,the higher the cost.

The longer World waits to address climate change, the higher the cost
In September, the world’s top scientists said the human influence on climate was clear. Last month, they warned of increased risks of a rapidly warming planet to our economies, environment, food supply, and global security. Today, the latest report from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) describes what we need to do about it.

The report focused on mitigation, says that global greenhouse gas emissions were rising faster in the last decade than in the previously three, despite reduction efforts. Without additional mitigation efforts, we could see a temperature rise of 3.7 to 4.8 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial times by the end of this century. The IPCC says we can still limit that increase to 2 degrees, but that will require substantial technological, economic, institutional, and behavioral change.
Let’s translate the numbers. For every degree rise, that equates to more risk, especially for the poor and most vulnerable.

Source: Rachel Kyte.

More than 80% of natural disasters are climate related.

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More than 80% of natural disasters are climate related.
Millions of people around the world already struggle to achieve food security and climate change is set to make those challenges even harder. It is perhaps humanity’s most pressing challenge, as we seek to nourish more than nine billion people by 2050.
The impacts of climate change will be numerous, affecting both food supply and demand. Droughts and water scarcity reduce overall food security and diminish dietary diversity. Infectious disease, which shares a vicious circle with malnutrition, will also increase as a result of climate change. Food systems at local levels in small farming communities will also be adversely affected, and overall, climate change could potentially slow down or reverse progress toward a world without hunger.
Poverty and climate change
There is growing recognition that the impacts of climate change and poverty are closely interconnected, as climate change impacts land availability, rainfed agriculture, and the emergence of diseases in the crop, forestry and fishery sectors. Poor people are disproportionately dependent on rainfed agriculture for their livelihoods, and they are thus especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.
The increasing frequency and intensity of climatic shocks will decrease poor producers’ abilities to sell an agricultural surplus, meaning less reinvestment in their farms and other livelihood activities, and less ability to buy a nourishing diet. In total, research by Ericksen et al (2011) found that around 265 million people across Latin America, Southern and West Africa, Eastern China, Southeast Asia, and the northern part of south Asia are highly vulnerable to a 5% decrease in the length of the growing season and are likely to face declines in food security due to climate change over the next 40 years.
Gender and climate change.Climate change does not affect men and women equally and might exacerbate gender inequalities with women being disproportionately affected. As women are more dependent on livelihoods and natural resources that are sensitive to climatic changes, they are also more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In addition, women represent the majority of the world’s poor and this means they often also lack the means to cope with adverse climate change impacts.
Research highlighted by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO, 2011: 5) show that yields on women’s farms could increase by 20–30% if women had the same access to productive resources as men. This could raise total agricultural output in developing countries by 2.5–4%, which could in turn reduce the number of hungry people in the world by 12–17%.
Source: Simon Bager – CGIAR 2014

Makala kuhusu mradi wa Haki katika Misitu

Makala maalumu kuhusu mafanikio yaliyofikiwa na mradi wa Haki katika Misitu kuanzia mwaka 2011 hadi mwaka 2013. Mradi huu ulikuwa unatekelezwa na Shirika la kuhifadhi Misitu ya asili Tanzania(TFCG)na Mtandao wa jamii wa usimamizi wa misitu Tanzania(MJUMITA)

Bofya hapo chini kwa maelezo zaidi.

Agroforestry a win-win for reforestation and agriculture

Agroforestry increases carbon storage and can enhance agricultural productivity, so it could be a win-win solution to the difficult choice between reforestation and agricultural land use in Africa, says scientists from the World Agroforestry Centre.

In most parts of Africa, climate change mitigation to date has focused on reforestation and forest protection. But this is in conflict with the need to expand agricultural production in Africa to feed the continent’s growing population.
Agroforestry however, can achieve mitigation and increase production but also help farmers adapt to the impacts of climate change.

“For example, a farm with trees will suffer less to the impacts of climate change because it will absorb some of these impacts, so agroforestry is a good response to develop resilience of agrosystems to the challenges brought about by climate change,” says Cheikh Mbow, Senior Scientist, Climate Change and Development at the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and lead author of the article.

Mbow and co-authors suggest that agroforestry should attract more attention in global agendas on climate change mitigation because of its positive social and environmental impacts. Increasing the adoption of agroforestry requires support for smallholder farmers through building robust extension services.

Source: ICRAF

Africa and climate change

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Africa needs about $675 billion by 2030 to achieve low-carbon sustainable growth; the current carbon market for mitigation is not sufficient to address this. The Clean Development Mechanism, the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation program, and the voluntary offset program are not fully utilized. Africa’s total ecological footprint is set to double by 2040. Ten African nations have pledged to include the economic value of natural resources in their national accounts. The regional focus will be on adaptation to climate change rather than mitigation

Price and weather-indexed insurance schemes will help Africa stabilize prices in domestic markets and help farmers adapt to climate change. Southern Africa could lose more than 30% of its maize crop by 2030 due to climate change. Sudan planted cotton for the first time in 2012, making it the fourth country in Africa to commercialize a biotech crop after South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt. Re-afforestation, saltwater agriculture along the coasts, and solar energy in the Sahara could be massive sources of sustainable growth. Mayors in Mali are now required to have couples plant trees as part of their marriage registration process.

Source: NOAA National Climatic Data Center with Millennium Project estimates

Wakulima wahamasika kujiunga na kilimo rafiki na mazingira

Wakulima wa kijiji cha Machali wilayani Chamwino wahamasika kujiunga na kilimo rafiki na mazingira baada ya kuona wakulima wenzao wamenufaika kwa kupata mazao ya kutosha. Pia mkuu wa wilaya amewashauri wakulima kutumia mbolea za wanyama na mbolea za mimea kama maganda ya karanga ili kuweza kupata mazao ya kutosha. Pia kujiunga kwenye vyama vya ushirika ili kuweza kupata masoko kwa urahisi.

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